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Broken Blood Vessels Cause Dark Circles Under Eyes

Millions of people have dark circles under eyes. Most have inherited the color and characteristics of their lower eyelid from their parents. Dark circles under eyes often appear during childhood, many people telling me they first noticed their dark circles when they were 9 or 10 years old.

There are many causes of dark circles under eyes, but in this article I am going to focus on broken blood vessels, small vascular (blood vessel) structures in the lower eyelid skin. Broken blood vessels are the easiest cause of dark circles under eyes to treat and correct.

How Broken Blood Vessels Cause Dark Circles under Eyes?

Actually what most people call broken blood vessels are not really broken blood vessels. What most people see are visible blood vessels (vascular structures) on the skin in areas that they do not expect to see blood vessels. These small vessels are arterioles, venules, and capillaries. Arterioles carry fresh blood to the skin and venules take old blood away from the skin, back to the heart and lungs to be refreshed with oxygen. Capillaries connect the arterioles and venules.

Normally blood vessels are deeper in the skin and not visible. Visible or broken blood vessels become noticeable in the following situations:

o Thin Skin– The eyelid skin is the thinnest skin in the body. The eyelid skin is only 1/6 the thickness of the skin on the rest of the face. The skin is so thin that you can see through it. You can actually see the small arterioles and venules in the skin of the eyelid. These same structures are present in all skin but are not visible in thicker skin elsewhere in the body. The lower eyelid muscle is purple, and this color is visible through the eyelid skin. That is why all lower eyelids have a darker color. This color is what most people refer to as dark circles under eyes.

o Telangiectasias or Spider Veins– The arterioles, venules and capillaries in dark circles under the eyes can be dilated or enlarged a condition called telangiectasia or often referred to as spider veins. Telangiectasias are most often caused by heredity. However, aging, pregnancy, use of topical steroid cream, excessive exertion such as weight lifting, and Rosacea also can cause telangiectasia.

o Aging and Inflammation– Ultraviolet radiation and other skin aging factors produce inflammation or irritation of the skin, especially the thin skin around the eyes. When eyelid skin is inflamed, new arterioles, venules and capillaries vessels grow into the skin to repair the damage. These new structures stay in the skin and are visible. The presence of these vascular structures darkens the color of the lower eyelid skin and can appear as dark circles under eyes.

How to Remove Dark Circles under Eyes Caused by Broken Blood Vessels

Lasers can remove Telangiectasias, and small vascular structures under the eyes, but newer light based treatments are safer and better. The newer technique called Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) or photo facial is a much gentler procedure that is very effective and does not leave marks or white areas under the eye, a major problem with older laser techniques.

o IPL- Photo Facial-Intense pulsed light (IPL) is not a laser. IPL uses a bright flash of visible light which is tuned to be absorbed by the specific color of blood. The light passes through the skin without injuring the skin and is preferentially absorbed by the blood in the small Telangiectasias, venules, arterioles and capillaries. The light energy causes the blood to boil and the heat causes the wall of the structure to shrink and close. The process takes about 6 weeks.

Usually 3 IPL treatments scheduled 6 weeks apart are required to lighten the color of the skin causing the dark circle under the eye. Eye shields must be placed on the eye to protect the eye from the light. IPL is the best treatment for Rosacea.

o Laser– Two laser wavelengths are specifically absorbed by blood -the 532nm and 1064nm laser wavelengths. The 1064nm laser is usually too strong to be used on the eyelids. The 532nm laser is the one more commonly used on the lower eyelids. However, because the laser is so strong, the eyelid skin is often damaged and a scar or white area on the eyelid skin can occur.

Since IPL has been developed, the laser is no longer the choice for treating the eyelids. Eye shields must be placed on the eye to protect the eye from the laser.

o Vein Injections– Very large and noticeable veins on the lower eyelid can be closed by injecting a sclerosing solution that is most commonly used on the lower legs to treat spider veins. This is a very tricky procedure and should only be done by an expert experienced in this technique.

o Fractional laser resurfacing to thicken skin– New fractional laser resurfacing techniques are safe to use on the eyelids with eye protective shields in place. These new fractional laser techniques plump or thicken the lower eyelid skin and lighten the color. Thicker lower eyelid skin helps camouflage the vessels and Telangiectasias.


Inherited eyelid skin color cannot be prevented. However there are things we can do to prevent new telangiectasia and vascular structures from forming and making the skin color darker. Since Ultraviolet radiation from the sun causes inflammation and new vascular growth, sun protection is the most important.

o Sun block– Always make sure that you apply sun block to the eyelids when you apply sun block to your face.

o Eye protection-Always wear protective sunglasses that cover the crow’s feet areas as well as the eyes.

o Anti-inflammatory-Medical grade topical Vitamin C Serum is a powerful anti-inflammatory medication. Its use on the face and eyelids can help reduce inflammation which can cause telangiectasia and new vascular growth on the facial and eyelid skin.

If you are not happy with the color of your lower eyelids, IPL may be the answer you are looking for.

Source by Brooke R. Seckel, M.D., FACS

Learning Spanish Downloaded From Your Computer

A major problem faced by online entrepreneurs is Internet piracy, where viewers are irresponsible enough to download online materials for free. Not only do the writers and other creative geniuses behind the material are unacknowledged, they do not receive the payment for the random usage of the material. As honest citizens, it is our duty to rightfully purchase the material before utilizing them.

The variety of downloadable items that the Internet offers includes the massive collection of artistic recordings such as music and movies, software and games. There is also educational software such as language beginner's lesson that suggests that anyone can learn a foreign language in the time span of three months. The lists of languages ​​offered by websites are astonishingly boundless, where some online programs put forward 150 different foreign languages ​​that consist of Indo-Aryan, Oriental and Latin roots. Even Swahili and Afrikaans are included in this program.

Interested potential online students can actually subscribe to the web page in order to receive online tutorials. There is a small fee for registration and course, but the monthly charges usually do not exceed $ 10.

Learning Spanish downloaded from your computer is an ingenious move for the savoir-faire online student because you are able to study from the comfort of your own home. Although there is no social presence of a teacher, you are able to pose questions regarding the class via e-mail and video conferencing.

When you start learning Spanish downloaded from your computer, you have decided to save more money on intangible everyday commodities such as transportation. Not only that, the speed of the Internet is a clear factor of how the student may be able to save time. The Internet allows the user to click back, scroll down and enter other tabs to his or her own choice. This displays the control of the media that the student possesses of the instruction material.

Source by Chris Cornell

The Amazing Characteristics of Falcons

Falcons are amazing predators and in my opinion the most spectacular aerial predator in the world. They are not the strongest amongst birds of prey, but their hunting tactics are truly remarkable. There is a reason that fighter jets are designed after falcons. Its not just the amazing speed, but also the way they are able to turn at g-forces that would kill a human being.

There are many types of falcons throughout the world and North America. The most common found in North America are the Prairie Falcon, American Kestrel, Merlin, Gyr Falcon, and the infamous Peregrine Falcon. Kestrels hunt in a different fashion and do not use diving techniques. The Peregrine is the most well known for its speed and hunting ability. In my opinion the Gyr falcon, although larger is as fast as the peregrine.

Falcons mainly prey upon other birds, such as ducks, pigeons, grouse, etc… They fly high in the sky far above their prey and when ready to pursue, go into an incredible dive. In the dive they turn in a cork screw fashion after their prey. Even though the fastest way from one point to the other is a straight line, the falcon dives in this way to keep its eye on its prey. The reason is their eyes are placed more on the side of their head, instead of looking straight forward like humans. They have long narrow wings built for speed and a long narrow tail built for amazing turning capability. They strike their prey at incredible speeds in mid-air, sometimes the one strike is all it takes to kill. If not the falcon will gain altitude again quickly and strike again and again. They are also well known for chasing their prey down after the initial strike. They sometimes hit with their feet and talons open and sometime with their feet closed making a fist. Either way is enough to make a lethal blow to its prey.

The Peregrine Falcon has been documented diving at speeds at 232mph. This 2 pound bird has been known to take prey as large as a 9 pound sage grouse, the largest game bird in North America. In the falconry world, falconers breed falcons for hunting purposes. The popular falcon to breed is a hybrid, a bird that is half peregrine and half Gyr falcon. Many falconers like to use male birds because of their tenacity, the problem is the males are smaller than females and are not large enough to take down the popular sage grouse. This hybrid bird is perfect for sage grouse hunting, they get the large size from the Gyr falcon and the tenacity from the peregrine falcon. These hybrids are usually the size of a female peregrine, but have the personality of a male.

The peregrine falcon seemed to be doomed to extinction because of a chemical pesticide, called DDT that farmers used on their crops. Finally the US banned DDT and since then the peregrine, along with many other species of birds have made a full recovery. The peregrine is common and will even build their nests on ledges of giant building that resemble a cliff in big cities. Watch high in the sky for this amazing predator that is truly the jet fighter of the bird world.

Source by Shawn G. Smith

Blogging For A Living

Let face it, blogging has come to stay. It is the in-thing in this 21st century. There are millions of blogs all over the world.

It really has no limitations and it has a global reach. Therefore, regardless of your vocation, profession, passion, skill, knowledge, experience, you can share your thoughts in writing with others.

You can also share pictures, graphics, symbols, data and others items online.

So, if you are a student, farmer, teacher, job seeker, journalist, housewife, accountant, artist, etc, the entire world is your market.

The truth is that we all are marketers. Yes, we should use our blogs to sell our ideas, products and services to the entire world.

Basically, a blog is like your personal diary. This is where you write down your plans, projections, inspirations, aspirations, challenges, failures and successes. You could do this as often as possible.

Like me, I know that there are millions of people out there who know little or nothing about blogging.

There are equally millions of people who know about it all over the world. But, knowledge, like other areas of life is forever evolving.

However, in this modern age, we really do not have any excuse whatsoever but to study and research on what it is all about.

We also need to figure out how to use it as a credible tool to better serve humanity.

Original contents will attract readers to your blog and this will eventually translate to prospects, who may be willing to pay you for your service. I am sure you have head of

I read somewhere online that there are some 40 million bloggers in the United States of America. But, it is only about 2% of this figure that seems to be successful in the business of blogging.

I must confess that I do not have statistics on the number of bloggers we have in Nigeria. But I guess the statistics could be very low.

To some persons, blogging should be run like a business venture. This means, it should be profit driven.

However others see it more or less like a passion, where they could use to express themselves. Whichever side you belong, it is important to contribute your quota in making this world a better place through blogging.

These are some of the tips readers should know and apply in order to make a living from blogging. It takes focus, consistency, patience to become a successful blogger.

Source by Emmanuel Udom

What is a Fiber Optic Patch Panel?

Fiber optic patch panels are also known as fiber distribution panels. Patch panel’s function is to terminate the fiber optic cable and provide access to the cable’s individual fibers for cross connection.

Fiber patch panel can use fiber patch cables to cross-connect, connect to fiber optic communication equipment or test the individual fibers in the fiber cable.

A fiber patch panel usually is composed of two parts, the compartment that contains fiber adapters (bulkhead receptacles), and the compartment that contains fiber optic splice trays and excess fiber cables.

If you want a even neater cable management, you can also use a fiber patch cable management tray to neatly store and manage excessive fiber patch cable lengths.

Optical fibers from workstations or from other wiring closets terminate in termination boxes. The termination boxes provide a patch point for a small number of connections, but larger installations will have a separate patching location that serves all of the incoming and outgoing fiber cables.

A fiber patch panel consists of an array of duplex SC adapters, hybrid adapters, or Small Form Factor (SFF) jacks. If the entire installation, including the fiber optic hubs, repeaters, or network adapters, uses the same type of fiber optic connectors, then the array can be made of compatible adapters or jacks.

To convert between fiber connector types, you need a hybrid adapter or a conversion cable. A hybrid adapter is a passive coupler that joins two different connector types, while a conversion cable simply has one connector type on one end and the other type on the opposite end.

Fiber patch panels provide a convenient way to rearrange fiber cable connections and circuits. A simple patch panel is a metal frame containing bushings in which fiber optic cable connectors plug in on either side. One side of the panel is usually fixed, meaning that the fiber cables are not intended to be disconnected. On the other side of the panel, fiber cables can be connected and disconnected to arrange the circuits as required.

Source by Colin Yao

5 Fun Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Facts

Vitamin B2 (also known as riboflavin) is part of the B-complex group of vitamins (a group of vitamins that were initially thought to be the singular vitamin B due to their similar roles in the body). It was discovered in the 1930s when Otto Warburg successfully isolated riboflavin as the result of detailed research into the B-complex vitamins. Riboflavin's main function is to help your body's cells break down food for energy but there is a lot more to it than this. In this article I am going to help you learn a little more about this vitamin by providing you with five fun vitamin B2 facts.

1) IT WORKS WITH THE OTHER B-COMPLEX VITAMINS TO GIVE YOU ENERGY: – Although vitamin B2 is required by your body to break down carbohydrates, fats and protein into a form that it can use, it does not work alone. All the B-complex vitamins combine so that the reaction that breaks these macronutrients down into energy can take place. Therefore, while it is important that you consume adequate levels of B2 you also need to make sure that you are getting your other B-complex vitamins as well.

2) IT PROMOTES HEALTHY SKIN, VISION AND BLOOD: – Every time your body uses oxygen free radicals are produced as a by-product. These free radicals can damage many structures in the body including blood vessel linings and cell membranes. To protect against these free radicals your body can use molecules called antioxidants. Riboflavin helps your body recycle the antioxidant glutathione which protects the eyes, the skin and the blood vessels from this oxygen based damage. Therefore, vitamin B2 promotes healthy skin, vision and blood by protecting these vital structures.

3) IT CAN BE FOUND IN MULTIPLE FOODS: – This vitamin can be sourced from a variety of foods. In fact you probably consume more vitamin B2 than you realize. Milk is one of the best sources of riboflavin but other dairy products such as cheese and yoghurt also contain good levels. Therefore, if you do not think you are consuming enough of this vitamin try adding some dairy to your diet.

4) IT IS A WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN: – Vitamin B2 is a water soluble vitamin which (as you probably guessed from the name) means that it dissolves in water. Your body can not store water soluble vitamins so you need to make sure that you get the recommended amount of riboflavin each day which is 1.3mg for men and 1.1mg for women. Water soluble vitamins are also very sensitive to light meaning that you should try and store foods containing B2 in a dark place and keep them away from intense lighting.

5) NOT GETTING ENOUGH CAN CAUSE SKIN PROBLEMS: – Riboflavin deficiency is very rare in developed western countries. However, if your diet is seriously lacking in vitamin B2 it can lead to your skin becoming greasy, scaly or dry. This can extremely lead to painful cracks and sores developing on your skin.

I hope this article has given you a greater understanding of vitamin B2 and the role it plays in your body It allows your body's cells to extract energy from the food you eat and also plays a key role in protecting them from oxidative damage. Therefore, it is essential for healthy living.

Source by Thomas Parker

How to Get a GOLF Scholarship and PLAY in College – Part 10

This is part 10 of a series of How to articles that will help your junior golfer achieve their dream of playing golf in college and get a college scholarship.

I am going to take a break from the rankings and schedules to discuss your Resume. The resume is an ongoing process and it will include the results from your tournaments. So, it seemed like a good time to get you started on this.

Take this opportunity to tell the schools that you have an interest in who you are and why you would be a good fit for their program. College coaches want to know more than your scores. They want to know about your civic involvement, your character, your work ethics and more importantly your academics. Coaches are excited to have academic scholarship money available for those players who qualify so that they can stretch their golf scholarship money further. It allows them the flexibility to offer you as much scholarship money as possible.

The basic information will include the following:

Name, Address, Telephone, Birth date, Social Security Number, Height, Weight, Name of High School, Month and Year of Graduation, Grade Point Average, Class Rank, SAT or ACT Scores, USGA or State Handicap Index, High School Stroke Average, List Other Sports and Extracurricular activities

Now for the most important part, you need to list your tournament results and highlights:

Event name and location

Number of players in the field

Your finish

Course rating and distance

Unusual weather for the event

Yardage for the course

This part of the resume is where you show a college coach how well you play tournament golf. You may want to break this down by year, so coaches can see improvement from year to year.

If you are currently playing at a Junior College you will need to submit a resume to your next school of choice that you wish to play at during your junior and senior year.

Now go make some birdies!

Source by Randy Beckett

How to Design and Layout a Coffee Shop Or Espresso Bar

If you are planning to open an espresso bar/coffee shop, then developing an efficient store design and layout will be one of the most important factors in positioning your business for success.

Speed of service is critical to the profitability of a coffee business. An efficient ergonomic store design will allow you to maximize your sales by serving as many customers as possible during peak business periods. Even though your business may be open 12 to 16 hours a day, in reality, 80% of your sales will probably occur during 20% of those hours. Coffee is primarily a morning beverage, so your busy times of day (those times when you are most likely to have a line of waiting customers), may be from 6:30AM to 8:30AM, and then again around lunchtime. If you have a poor store layout, that does not provide a logical and efficient flow for customers and employees, then the speed of customer service and product preparation will be impaired.

Think of it like this; if someone pulls open the front door of your store, and they see 5 people are waiting in line to order, there’s a good chance they’ll come in, wait in line, and make a purchase. But, if they see that 20 people are waiting in line, there is a high probability that they may determine that the wait will be too long, and they will simply get coffee somewhere else. This is money that just escaped your cash register! And, if they come to your store multiple times, and frequently find a long line of waiting customers, they may decide you are not a viable option for coffee, and will probably never return. Poor design slows down the entire service process, resulting in a longer line of waiting customers, and lost sales. So in reality, your daily business income will be dependent upon how many customers you can serve during peak business periods, and good store design will be essential to achieving that objective!

The financial impact of a poor store design can be significant. For the sake of this example, let’s say the average customer transaction for your coffee business will be $3.75. If you have a line of waiting customers each morning between 7:00 AM and 8:30 AM, this means you have 90 minutes of crunch time, in which you must drive through as many customers as possible. If you can service a customer every 45 seconds, you will serve 120 customers during this 90 minutes. But, if it takes you 1 minute 15 seconds to service each customer, then you will only be able to serve 72 customers. 120 customers x $3.75 = $450.00 x 30 business days per month = $13,500. 72 customers x $3.75 = $270.00 x 30 business days per month = $8,100. This represents a difference of $5,400 in sales per month ($64,800 per year), coming from just 90-minutes of business activity each day!

So how should you go about designing your coffee bar? First, understand that putting together a good design is like assembling a puzzle. You have to fit all the pieces in the proper relationship to each other to end up with the desired picture. This may require some trial and error to get things right. I’ve designed hundreds of coffee bar over the past 15 years, and I can truthfully tell you from experience, it still usually takes me a couple of attempts to produce an optimal design.

The design process begins by determining your menu and other desired store features. If you plan to do in-store baking, then obviously you’ll need to include in your plan an oven, exhaust hood, sheet pan rack, a large prep table, and perhaps a mixer. If you plan to have a private meeting room for large groups, then an extra 200 sq. ft. or more will need to be designed-in, in addition to the square footage you are already allocating for normal customer seating.

Your intended menu and other business features should also drive decisions about the size of location you select. How many square feet will be required to fit in all the necessary equipment, fixtures, and other features, along with your desired seating capacity?

Typically, just the space required for the front of the house service area, (cash register, brewing & espresso equipment, pastry case, blenders, etc.), back of the house (storage, prep, dishwashing and office areas), and 2-ADA restrooms, will consume about 800 sq. ft. If space for extensive food prep, baking, coffee roasting, or cooking will be required, this square footage may increase to 1,000 to 1,200, or more. What ever is left over within your space after that, will become your seating area.

So, a typical 1,000 sq. ft coffee bar, serving beverages and simple pastries only, will probably allow for the seating of 15 to 20 customers – max! Increase that square footage to 1,200 sq. ft., and seating should increase to 30, or 35. If you plan to prepare sandwiches, salads, and some other food items on site, 1,400 to 1,600 sq. ft. should provide enough space to seat 35 to 50, respectively.

Next, you will have to determine the tasks that will be performed by each employee position, so that the equipment and fixtures necessary to accomplish those tasks can be located in the appropriate places.

Normally, your cashier will operate the cash register, brew and serve drip coffee, and serve pastries and desserts. Your barista will make all your espresso-based beverages, tea, chai, hot chocolate, Italian sodas, as well as all the blender beverages. If you’ll be preparing sandwiches, panini, wraps, salads, snacks and appetizers, or will be baking on-site, then a person dedicated to food prep will be necessary. And, if you anticipate high volume, and will be serving in or on ceramics, a bus-person/dishwasher may be a necessity.

After you have determined what you will be serving, the space you will be leasing, and what each employee will be responsible for, you will then be ready to begin your design process. I usually start my design work from the back door of the space and work my way forward. You’ll need to design in all of the features that will be necessary to satisfy your bureaucracies and facilitate your menu, before you make plans for the customer seating area.

Your back door will most likely have to serve as an emergency fire exit, so you’ll need a hallway connecting it with your dining room. Locating your 2-ADA restrooms off of this hallway would make good sense. And, because delivery of products will also probably occur through your back door, having access to your back of the house storage area would also be convenient.

In the back of the house, at minimum, you will need to include a water heater, water purification system, dry storage area, back-up refrigerator and freezer storage, ice maker, an office, 3-compartment ware washing sink, rack for washed wares, mop bucket sink, and a hand washing sink. Do any food prep, and the addition of a food prep sink and prep table will be necessary. If doing baking, gelato making, full cooking, or coffee roasting, all the equipment necessary for those functions will also need to be added.

After all the features have been designed into the back of the house, you will then be ready to start your design work on the front of the house service and beverage preparation area. This area will probably include a pastry case, cash register(s), drip coffee brewer and grinder(s), espresso machine and grinders, a dipper well, possibly a granita machine, blenders, ice holding bin, blender rinse sink, hand washing sink, under counter refrigeration (under espresso machine and blenders), and a microwave oven.

If serving food beyond simple pastries and desserts, you may need to add a panini toaster grill, a refrigerated sandwich/salad preparation table, soup cooker/warmer, a bread toaster, etc. If you plan to serve pre made, ready to serve sandwiches, wraps, and salads, along with a selection of bottled beverages, an open-front, reach-in merchandising refrigerator should be considered. Serving ice cream or gelato? If the answer is yes, then an ice cream or gelato dipping cabinet will be necessary along with an additional dipper well.

Finally, when all the working areas of the bar have been designed, the customer seating area can be laid out. This will, of course, include your cafe tables and chairs, couches and comfortable upholstered chairs, coffee tables, and perhaps a window or stand-up bar with bar stools. Impulse-buy and retail merchandise shelves should be established, and a condiment bar should be located close to where customers will pick-up their beverages.

A quick word about couches, large upholstered chairs, and coffee tables. Living room type furniture takes up a lot of space. If you plan to be opening evenings, and will perhaps serve beer and wine, and having comfortable seating will be important for creating a relaxing ambiance, then by all means do it. But if you have limited seating space, and are not trying to encourage people to relax and stay for long periods of time, then stick with cafe tables and chairs. The more people you can seat, the greater your income potential!

Features from the front door to the condiment bar should be arranged in a logical, sequential order. As your customers enter the front door, their travel path should take them past your impulse-buy merchandise display, and the pastry case, before they arrive at the point of order (where your cashier, cash register, and menu-board will be located). Exposing customers to your impulse items and pastries, before they order, will greatly increase their sales. Then, after the order and payment has been taken, they should proceed down-line away from the cash register to pick-up their beverage, and finally, the condiment bar should be located beyond that point. Be sure to separate your point of order from the point of product pick-up by at least six feet, otherwise customers waiting for their beverage may begin to intrude into the space of those ordering.

Don’t make the mistakes that many inexperienced designers commonly make. They arrange these features in a haphazard way, so that customers have to change direction, and cut back through the line of awaiting customers to proceed to their next destination in the service sequence. Or, wanting to make their espresso machine a focal point to those entering the store, they place it before the cashier along the customer’s path of travel. Customers inevitably end up trying to order from the barista before they are informed that they need to proceed to the cashier first. If this happens dozens of times each day, confusion and slowed beverage production will be the result.

On the employee’s side of the counter, work and product flow are even more important. Any unnecessary steps or wasted movements that result from a less than optimal design will slow down employee production. All products should flow seamlesly in one direction towards the ultimate point of pick-up. For example, if preparing a particular item is a 3-step process, then placement of equipment should allow for the 3 steps to occur in order, in one linear direction, with the final step occurring closest to the point where customers will be served.

Equipment should be grouped together so that it is in the immediate proximity of the employee(s) who will be using it. Beyond the actual equipment, empty spaces must be left on the counter top to store ingredients and small wares (tools) used in product preparation. Counter top space will also be needed where menu items will actually be assembled. Think of the grouping of equipment for different job functions as stations. Try to keep different stations compact and in close working proximity to each other, but make sure that there is enough space between each so that employee working-paths don’t cross, which could contribute to employee collisions.

Creating defined work stations will allow you to put multiple employees behind the counter when needed. When it is busy, you may need to have 2 cashiers, another person just bagging pastries and brewing coffee, 2 baristas behind the espresso machine, a maybe even a dedicated person working the blenders. If you’re preparing sandwiches and salads to order, then another person may need to be added to handle that task. Keeping your stations in close proximity to each other will allow one employee to easily access all equipment during very slow periods of business, thus saving you valuable labor dollars.

When you arrange equipment in relationship to each other, keep in mind that most people are right handed. Stepping to the right of the espresso machine to access the espresso grinder will feel more comfortable than having to move to the left. Likewise, place your ice storage bin to the right of your blenders, so when you scoop ice, you can hold the cup or blender pitcher in your left hand, and scoop with your right.

As you create your store layout, the equipment you select should fit your space and the needs of your anticipated business volume. A busy location will most likely require a dual or twin, air pot, drip coffee brewer (one that can brew 2 pots at the same time), as opposed to a single brewer. If you anticipate selling a lot of blended and ice drinks, then an under counter ice maker, one that can only produce 100 pounds of ice or less per day, will not be sufficient. You should instead locate a high-capacity ice maker (one that can make 400 or 500 lbs. per day) in the back of the house, and transport ice to an ice holding bin up front. Plan to bring in frozen desserts and ice cream? Then a 1 door reach-in freezer in the back of he house will probably be inadequate for you storage needs, so you’ll need to consider a 2 or 3 door. I always recommend a 3-group espresso machine for any location that may generate 150 drinks per day or more. And, I can tell you from experience, you can never have too much dry or refrigerated storage space!

Make sure that any equipment you select will be acceptable with your local bureaucracy before your purchase and take delivery of it. All equipment will typically need to be NSF & UL approved, or have a similar, acceptable, foreign certification equivalent. Your bureaucracy will most likely want to see manufacturer specification sheets on all equipment to verify this fact, before they’ll approve your plans.

ADA (American’s with Disabilities Act) compliance will also come into play when you are designing your coffee bar. In some areas of the country, this will only apply to those areas of your store that will be used by customers. However, other bureaucracies may require your entire store to be ADA compliant. Following are some of the basic requirements of compliance with the code:

• All hallways and isle ways must be 5 feet wide (minimum).

• All countertop working heights must be 34 inches high (instead of normal 36 inch height).

• 18 inches of free wall space must be provided on the strike-side of all doors (the side with the door knob).

• All hand-washing sinks must be ADA friendly.

• All bathrooms must be ADA compliant (5 foot space for wheelchair turnaround, handrails at toilet, acceptable clearance around toilet and hand washing sink, etc.).

• No steps allowed, ramps are OK with the proper slope.

• If your space has multiple levels, then no feature may exist on a level where handicapped access has not been provided, if that same feature does not exist on a level where it will be accessible.

You can find the complete regulations for ADA compliance at the following website:

Beyond the basic Equipment Floor Plan, showing new partitions, cabinets, equipment, fixtures, and furnishings, you’ll need to produce some additional drawings to guide your contractors and satisfy the bureaucracies.

Electrical Plan

An electrical plan will be necessary to show the location of all outlets needed to operate equipment. Information such as voltage, amperage, phase, hertz, special instructions (like, “requires a dedicated circuit”), and the horizontal and vertical location of each outlet, should all be specified.

A small, basic coffee shop might get away with a 200 amp service, but typically 400 amps will be required if your equipment package will include items like an electric water heater, high-temperature dishwasher, or cooking equipment (ovens, panini grill, etc.).

In addition to the electrical work required for your coffee business-specific equipment, you may need to adjust existing electrical for additional or reconfigured lighting, HVAC, general-purpose convenience outlets, and exterior signs. Also, have your electrician run any needed speaker wires, TV/internet cables, and cash register remote receipt printer cables at the same time they are installing electrical wires. Finally, make sure your electrician makes provisions for lighted exit signs, and a battery-powered emergency evacuation lighting system, if needed.

Plumbing Plan

A plan showing all plumbing features will be necessary. At minimum, this should show stub-in locations for all needed water sources (hot & cold), drains, your water heater, water purifications system, grease interceptor (if required), bathroom fixtures, etc.

While a typical P-trap drain should be acceptable for most fixtures and equipment, some will require an air-gap drain. An air gap drain does not go through the “S”-shaped twists of the P-trap. Instead, the drain line comes straight down from the piece of equipment or fixture, and terminates 2 inches above the rim of a porcelain floor sink drain. This porcelain drain basin is usually installed directly into the floor. The air gap between the drain line from your equipment or fixture, and the bottom of the basin, prevents any bacteria in the sewer pipe from migrating into the equipment or fixture. I drain the following pieces of equipment to a floor sink drain when creating a plumbing plan:

• espresso machine

• dipper wells

• ice maker

• ice holding bin

• food prep sink

• soft drink dispensing equipment

To save on the life of your water filtration system, only your espresso machine and coffee brewer should be supplied by with treated water. Coffee is 98% to 99% water, so good water quality is essential. Your ice maker should only require a simple particle filter on the incoming line (unless your water quality is terrible). There is no need to filter water that will be used for hand and dish washing, cleaning mops, flushing toilets, and washing floors!

Be aware that many bureaucracies are now requiring a grease interceptor on the drain line from your 3-compartment ware washing sinks and automatic dishwasher. A grease interceptor is basically a box containing baffles that traps the grease before it can enter the public sewer system.

Also understand that a typical retail space will not come equipped with a water heater with enough capacity to handle your needs. Unless your space was previously some type of a food service operation, you will probably need to replace it with a larger one.

If cutting trenches in the floor will be necessary to install porcelain floor sinks, a grease interceptor, and run drain lines, then establishing a few general purpose floor drains at this same time behind the counter, and in the back of the house, will prove useful. Floor drains will allow you to squeegee liquids away when spills occur, and when washing floors.

Finally, if you added some new walls during your remodel, you may need to have the fire sprinkler system for your space adjusted or reconfigured.

Cabinet Elevations

Drawing cabinet elevations, (the view you would have if you were standing in front of your cabinets), will be necessary for your cabinet maker to understand all the features they will need to incorporate into your cabinet designs.

These elevations are not meant to be shop fabrication drawings for your cabinetmaker, but merely serve a reference, showing needed features and desired configuration. Where do you want drawers, and under counter storage space; and, where do you want cabinet doors on that under counter storage? Where should open space be left for the placement of under counter refrigeration and trashcans? Will cup dispensers be installed in the cabinet face under the counter top? These elevations will provide your cabinetmaker with a clear understanding of all these features.

While your kitchen base cabinets at home are typically 24 inches deep, for commercial applications they should be 30 inches deep, and 33 inches if an under counter refrigerator is to be inserted. Also, when specifying the size of an open bay to accommodate under counter refrigeration, be sure to allow a couple of inches more than the physical dimensions of the equipment, so that it can be easily inserted and removed for daily cleaning.

Dimensions Plan

You will need to create a floor plan showing all the critical dimensions for new partitions, doors, cabinets, and fixtures. This will, of course, help make sure that everything ends up where it is suppose to be, and will be the right size.

A final thought about design; unless the space you will be designing is a clean vanilla shell (meaning, nothing currently exists in the space, except perhaps one ADA restroom), you will have to make sure that all the features that you are considering keeping, will be acceptable with your local bureaucracy. Many older buildings were not designed to present codes. If the business type remains the same (your space was occupied by a food service establishment before you), then some times any non compliant features will be grandfathered-in, meaning you don’t have to bring them up to current requirements. But don’t count on this! You need to check with your bureaucracies to make sure. More and more I see bureaucracies requiring new business owners to remodel, so that all features are compliant with codes. This means you may have to rip-out bathrooms and hallways, add fire sprinkler systems, and provide ramps where there are steps. Better you know all these things before you begin your store design!

I always tell my consulting clients, that if I produce a perfect design and layout for them, they will never notice… because everything will be exactly where you would expect it to be. Unfortunately, if you create a less than optimal design for your coffee bar, you probably won’t realize it until you start working in it. Changing design mistakes or inadequacies after the fact, can be extremely expensive. Not correcting those mistakes may even cost you more in lost potential sales. For this reason, I strongly suggest using an experienced coffee business space designer to create your layout for you, or at very least, to review the design you have created. Doing so will payoff with dividends.

Source by Ed Arvidson

Developing Your Snowboard Muscle Memory

Muscle memory is incredibly vital to landing manoeuvres, so let’s have a quick investigation and discover precisely how we can train it better.

What exactly is muscle memory?

Muscle memory in considered the natural ability of our muscles to remember a series of movements. If you catch a ball, you are depending upon your muscle memory. The same goes for performing snowboarding maneuvers.

When you spin a 360, you are telling your muscles to go back inside their memory banks and carry out each of the steps required to perform a 360 spin.

What makes muscle memory vital?

Your muscles will recall whatever you make them learn. Consequently, the better and more accurate your muscle memory is, the more frequently you will be able to land your tricks.

1) Repetition

Your muscles require time to remember the movements of every trick. Much like how you needed to learn how to walk, your muscles have to learn how to snowboard. Every technique you wish to master has to be repeated until your muscles can remember the moves.

The easiest way to teach your muscles to remember, is usually to practice. Practice lots and practice habitually.

2) High quality Technique

Ideally, you should train your muscles to recreate the correct actions. This means when you recognize a problem in your technique, go back and fix it. The longer you leave a fault, the longer it becomes part of your muscle memory.

You don’t want improper habits to become a component of your muscle memory, or you may find yourself having a hard time getting rid of them down the road.

3) Visualization

Imagine your technique ahead of implementing it. The power to close your eyes and visualize every single action is a crucial factor to making your muscles perform the proper actions. Mental practice can be equally as effective as physical training.

Don’t forget, work through every last action. This simply means if you’re visualizing a 360 spin, you’d imagine every aspect from nearing the jump to your setup turns as well as your wind up, knee bend and release.

4) Turn it into a routine

Before you start executing a manoeuvre, stop yourself and strive to create a routine that goes through each and every step. Move from picturing to performing the technique the exact same every single time. Make everything the same. You are looking for your actions to become exactly the same anytime you perform the same techniques.

As an example: A typical routine for a lot of freestyle snowboarders is to stand at the run in ramp of a jump, visualize what they’re wanting to do, think of each action of the trick, then carry it out.

Source by Andrew Hedditchson

Tony Robbins CANI! System Explained

“CANI” stands for Constant And Never-ending Improvement. It’s an acronym that Tony developed more than a decade ago and he was influenced by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. Dr. Deming is credited as one of the leaders who brought one of the first quality movements to the Japanese. His basic premise was that the secret to help the Japanese achieve world power and economic success was if every single person and organization commit to constant improvement.

The Japanese have a single word for “constant and never-ending improvement” and it’s called “Kaizen.” Kaizen is from the Japanese words Kai and Zen where “kai” means change and “zen” means good. Yes folks, change is good.

According to Robbins from his Lessons in Mastery series, he didn’t want to embrace the word “Kaizen” because it was a Japanese word and after-all, Dr. Deming was an “American…” therefore it was only proper to create an American word that meant the same as Kaizen. Transformational vocabulary is an important component to the tenets that Robbins teaches, so you can probably understand why Tony wanted to create a brand or a name for the association.

It is very easy to get caught up in your goals and desired end-outcomes…to the point of becoming overwhelmed. CANI offers a solution and a point of reference to focus your attention on. If all you did was improve one tiny aspect of your life every single day, you would achieve mastery in uncommon time.

Benefits of CANI include:

  • Creates a personal and business momentum that will be hard for your competitors to catch up with.
  • Personal satisfaction and fulfillment because it will cause you to grow personally.
  • Leads to innovation. Innovation creates leverage.

Tony Robbins once said, “We only learn our limits by going beyond them.” CANI! is a principle designed to encourage you to make small incremental improvements daily…and in doing so, you will be forced to find a way to go beyond your current set of self-imposed limitations.

Which areas of your life do you want to apply the principles of CANI! Today?

o Prosperity & Financial

o Family Relationships

o Friendship Building

o Health & Fitness

o Spirituality

o Recreation & Pleasure/Joy

o Education & Career Advancement

o Public Service/Volunteering

If you define your success as a “journey” rather than an end-destination, you can take comfort in the fact that personal growth and satisfaction can come from constant and never-ending improvement (CANI!).

Source by Chris Knight