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Expert Witness: Games Console Forensics


In today's average home there exist many potential sources of digital evidence, from the obvious home PCs and mobile phones to the less common 'pen-drives' and PDA's. All have been subject to comprehensive scrutiny from people involved in the legal process and academies since their properties have been shown to have forensic value. So far comparatively little evidence of interrogation into the forensic properties of modern gaming consoles exists, if we consider how they can be utilized in an incrementally 'PC-like' manner, this is an area capable of proffering considering amounts of data with evidentiary value in Criminal or civil court proceedings.

Computer forensics is a relatively new discipline combining elements of law and computer science to collect and analyze data from computer systems, networks, wireless communications and storage devices in a way that is admissible as evidence in a courtroom. Gaming consoles now provide the kind of data which can undergo forensic analysis because of the addition of memory (both internal and external) capable of 'storing' data beyond mere computer game information.

With the addition of storage capabilities beyond simple game data (ie hard drives capable of storing music, video, pictures, etc.) gaming consoles are able to utilize 'web' functionality and therefore will likely generate both 'persistent' and 'volatile data' with Forensic value. With an increasing amount of media functionality gaming consoles are becoming 'entertainment hubs' within the average household.

The machines most likely to provide usable forensic data are the Xbox360 and PS3 and due to their prevalence in homes (combined sales figures for the UK are around six million units) These are the machines where a pattern of use would be similar to more readily accepted Sources of forensic data (ie home computers).

Microsoft Xbox 360:

This gaming console can support external memory cards for game data and media storage, however these are infrequently utilized because of small size (both physically and in terms of data capacity). The most commonly used memory for the Xbox360 comes in the form of a detachable hard-drive ranging in size from twenty gigabytes to two-hundred and fifty gigabytes (allowing vast amounts of saved music, videos, photos, etc.) and is essential in allowing Online functionality on the machine. On an unmodified machine this online functionality reiterates to 'Xbox live', the online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service operated by Microsoft. This service allows users to:

• Download content from Xbox Live
• Log onto and update social networking and media services such as Facebook, Twitter, Zune and
• Add people to 'friends lists' for gaming and / or communication
• Send (unsolicited) text / picture / voice messages to other users

Many of the functions performed on the console have a time and date attributed to when the function was performed (or at least when it was last accessed or altered); This could potentially provide corroboration of a defensive location at a specified time. The communication possible through use of the Xbox live messaging system can provide evidence of illegal activity as messages are automatically stored for up to 30 days before deletion from the system, however all messages sent via Xbox live are retained on Microsoft servers and recoverable on any console The user profile is signed into, therefore any mention of a crime in a text or audio message would potentially be retrievable by a skilled investigator.

The functionality of the Xbox360 can be extended by modifying the internals to allow the playing of illegally downloaded software (piracy) or an operating system such as Linux could have installed and allowed an Xbox360 to have almost all the functions of a PC (and associated data Records of activity)

• Full access to the Internet (beyond mine Xbox live)
• E-mail
• Chat logs
• Pirated games

One important detail to note is that, at least from the outside, a modified console and an unmodified console can look exactly the same. While it is true that some members of the 'modding' community opt to apply various case definitions to their consoles, many do not, and therefore the console could have been mistaken for a standard device.

Sony Playstation 3:

The PS3 is similar to the Xbox360 in terms of potential forensic viability. Large amounts of digital media can be stored on its hard drive, and the PlayStation Network (similar to Xbox live) allows users to send messages much in the same way as with the Xbox360.

There are two key differences between these consoles, firstly, the PS3 has full internet browsing capability 'straight out of the box', even an unmodified PS3 would contain more usable data in terms of Internet search history, downloads, etc. On both the hard drive and the system 'data cache'. Secondly, it was possible to install third party operating systems on the PS3 without any modification to the system to enable it; This is currently in dispute in the US courts as this feature was removed by Sony to help prevent software piracy on the machine. Regardless, installing a second operating system (for whatever purpose) is still possible, now requiring some hard drive modification to enable this function, allowing the PS3 almost all the functionality of a PC.

Motion Control – Move & Kinect:

In the final months of 2010 new functionality was added to the PS3 (Move) and the Xbox360 (Kinect), 'Motion Control'. Using cameras and motion tracking software the console is able to interpret user body movement and replicate it 'in game'. From an evidential point of view, this provides another type of data to be collected from a gaming console, practically this expands the scope of what data stored on these machines can be used for. The cameras are actually used to record the user of the motion control software at certain points of game activity this can be stored, this could have been used and used to send videos of underage children or obscene videos via Xbox live. The videos could also be used to capture suspicions involved in criminal activity, with the videos having a date and time attached, analysis could determine a location, thereby corroborating or disproving the validity of a defenders claim as to their location at the time of an offense .

Nintendo Wii:

The Nintendo Wii currently boasts higher sales numbers than the Xbox360 and PS3 combined. It is seen as a gaming console for 'non-gamers' and has lower technical specifications than both of its competitors, as such it is less of target for modification, although data with forensic properties can still be extracted from it. The Nintendo Wii can utilize a first-party Opera-based web browser; Bookmarks are retained, and may be worth noting. The Wii also keeps a basic, daily log of system usage, and also keeps a contact list of added friends, as well as the messages those friends have sent. Also worth noting is that images may be sent over the player messaging system, which are then saved to the system flash storage or to external SD (memory) card. As is true of most modern consoles, various distributions of Linux have been ported to the system (Wii Linux), meaning that it could have been used in the same way as any desktop PC and should be treated as such.

Sony PlayStation Portable (PSP):

A portable game device can be defined as a gaming system that is small enough to be transported outside of the home and runs on batteries. While not as powerful as a console, portable game devices have made significant advances in power since their early days, and may now incorporated functions similar to PDAs. The PlayStation Portable may be used to access the Internet, store images and movies, and can be modified to run 3rd party operating systems, therefore forensic data is recoverable from the memory and 'data cache'.

Nintendo DS / DSi / 3DS:

All Nintendo DS units can establish ad-hoc wireless connections to other units to use a player to player chat program called Pictochat. Pictochat has been used in the past by predators to lure children to them. The DSi incorporates an SD card reader, which may be used to hide illicit materials. The DSi also incorporates a 0.3 megapixel camera which can store images on its internal flash RAM or SD card.

Games Console Forensics in the Real World:

For illustration purposes here are a few real world instances of crimes involving compelling consoles, hopefully illustrating the need to investigate gaming consoles just as thoroughly as more traditional computer forensic targets.

An example of gaming consoles being used in the same manner as a PC and providing usable forensic data would be an incident that occurred in August 2010 in the USA while an Xbox LIVE user based in Florida was discovered to have been soliciting naked pictures of a 10 Year old boy also using the Xbox live messaging service. Officers recovered the defenders Xbox 360, two computers and a flash drive and discovered sixteen child-pornography images of various boys.

Folsom Police Detective Andrew Bates stated that "parents should realize gaming systems like Xbox and PlayStation, when connected to the internet, can be used as other technology, such as a computer or telephone; users can speak to one another, text, or send photos , Thus making these systems another potential threat. "

Useful data recoverable from Xbox live was found in a case where a man surrendered himself to police after threatening a witness against him in an on-going criminal investigation, he was charged with tampering with a witness, intimidating a witness and two counts of second- Degree harassment.

There are documented instances of unsolicited indecent images being sent via Xbox live and PlayStation Network, here a couple were sent a message from an unknown user account, upon opening it discovered it contained an indecent image of a young boy and immediately contacted the police. An investigation would be able to determine the time and date this image was received and whether or not it was solicited by the user receiving the image by retrieval previous communications.

N another incident a PS3 user persuaded an 11 year old girl to email him nude pictures of herself (which he previously forwarded on to contacts in other US states). No other devices were used to commit these offsets and would potentially go undiscovered in an ordinary investigation.

On another occasion a man is accused of grooming several young girls over Xbox live; This was uncovered by the discovery of a mobile phone and recovery of Xbox360 data.

Considering the myriad of ways in which gaming consoles can now provide investigators with usable forensic data it is critical that the potential rewards of forensic investigation of gaming machines are fully comprehensed, and furthermore, that lawyers -whether prosecution or defense – find an expert witness with The necessary skills to support their case. It is possible to commit the types of offsets typically associated with a PC on a gaming machine and it is possible to retrieve data of equal significance from a gaming machine. Therefore correct seizure and investigation into these devices should have equal priority alongside other digital storage and communication devices.

Source by Simon Lang

La Quinceanera Party Games

La Quinceanera Party Games are almost as important as that first boy / girl slow dance for your young daughter's big 15th birthday party. So here are a couple of La Quinceanera party games that out to keep the guests laughing.

The first game is called 'Rhyme Round'. It's a good La Quinceanera party game to play with the adults who may be tired out after a long day of celebrations. It's a rhyming round of conversation to keep the small talk at the party fun. Have everyone sitting at a table play.

You can start this La Quinceanera game by turning to the person to your left and asking them a silly question. Then this person turns to the person to their left and requests another silly question, but the first word of their silly question must rhyme with the last word of your silly question and so on. For example; You ask 'How's the duck dancing going pal?' And that person says' Sal, we duck's do not dance, have not got two left feet? "To the person to their left. This style of rhyming continues around the party table. If anyone falters or messes up a rhyme they Have to drop out of the game. Be sure to give a La Quinceanera party prize to the last person talking.

The second game is called, 'Ping Pong Blow' and it's a test of everyone's lungs at the La Quinceanera party. For it you'll need two ping pong balls, a couple of baskets and a long table. The players will start with their balls set on one end of the table and try to get them to the other side of the table and into the baskets on the floor by only using their breath. This can be a crazy game because the ping pong balls tend to go any way way they want. The first to get their ping pong ball into the basket is the winner. If the ping pong ball falls off the table at any time and not into the basket you will place at the end of the table, the player owning the ball has to start from the beginning of the table again.

Source by Gail Leino

Video Game Induced Depersonalization

There is a strong correlation between feelings of anxiety, panic, depersonalization/derealization, and the constant use of video games. This is a deduction based upon thorough and extensive research and study.

The facts are there and continue to prove themselves out. Doctors now believe that electromagnetic fields (EMF’s) result in anxiety, depersonalization, derealization, depression, panic attacks, irritability and a long list of physically related illnesses.

Electromagnetic Fields (EMF’s) are found in fluorescent lighting known as Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL’s) and they have a strong effect on emotions. These same EMF’s cause adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline and cortisol, two anxiety and depersonalization related hormones which wreak havoc on every part of the central nervous system. Exposure to EMF’s also create a decrease in brain hormones such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which are closely linked to anxiety, depersonalization and depression when lowered. Those with even slight anxiety have often experienced panic attacks after entering stores lit by fluorescent lighting.

Video gaming is a two-fold exposure, leading to feelings of anxiety, depersonalization and derealization. There is a strong visual cue when exposed to computers for extended periods of time. This visual trigger or cue is caused by the same reaction one may experience when under fluorescent lighting. A computer or TV screen generally refreshes at 60 hertz (in which the screen is redrawn or refreshed 60 times per second). This creates a flicker affect, which is a visual cue and may trigger adrenaline and cortisol, resulting in intensified feelings of anxiety and or depersonalization/derealization. Prolonged use of video gaming is enough to bring forth this reaction. The individual is exposed to both EMF’s along with a strong visual trigger due to refresh flicker. The physical feelings are intensified by the stress and pressure associated with constant competitive gaming.

Another side of the problem arises when the individual spends a great deal of time living virtually rather than breaking the habit by entering life through daily routine and schedule, nutrition and activity. This prolongs the depersonalization even further.

It is important to recognize all sides of this situation and remedy it by following a very simple yet specific path to recovery.

1- EMF (electromagnetic fields) are found in computers, fluorescent lighting, cellular phones, appliances and power lines. If one is in close contact with any of these field producing electronics, for an extended period of time, they need to reconsider their habits.

2- Video Game Addiction is a real problem that must be addressed, especially if one experiences feelings of anxiety, depersonalization, derealization and panic. The mind becomes stuck in the trap of this addiction and symptoms frustrate and irritate. Fear exacerbates symptoms and one must unlearn these behaviors.

3- Depersonalization is a strong symptom of anxiety and is aided by very specific cognitive behavior skills, nutrition and a change in habits. It requires a precise system of recovery which must be strictly adhered to for best results.

4- The use of medications often exacerbate symptoms of depersonalization and anxiety. One is dealing with habits and behavior rather than physical illness.

Knowledge truly is power. Understanding is the first step in recovery. The only requirement is one’s willingness to look at the triggers of depersonalization and the readiness to follow a specific process, leading to full and permanent recovery.

Source by Dr. R.E. Freedman

Pokemon Cultural Impact

Pokemon have had a very important cultural impact in many countries where it has been imported. In Japan, Pokemon became popular, selling more than one million million copies of Pocket Monsters in 1996. At the Tokyo Game Show in 1997, players could get the Mew Pokemon by downloading their games. The result was a queue that was 4 km, with some people camping overnight before the show. Arriving in the United States, the Red and Blue versions sold more than 200 000 units in two weeks, then continued to sell at an average of 800 000 units per month. Both versions were the best games sold by Nintendo. At that point in time they were the best-selling games in the history of video games. Pokemon Pinball was the game released on Game Boy and it sold even more quickly, with more than 262 000 units sold in 20 days. The series that was distributed by Hasbro toys were also commercial successes. As the television series grew in popularity, so did Hasbro which surpassed its main competitor, Mattel, in 2000. The games were so popular that Hasbro was unable to gather enough toys to satisfy demand. Wizards of the Coast had the same problem with the card game collectibles, and has sold over 50 million cards between January and March 1999. As of July, 1999, Pokemon had generated more than $ 5 billion.

The phenomenon also influenced European countries, like France, where the Red and Blue versions were the best-selling games of 1999 and a million copies of each were sold as of June 2000, less than a year after its launch in France. The animated series was broadcast in several countries, including the United States, Australia, Japan, and Canada.

Source by Harry Preston

Game Design Jobs for Felons – Tips To Getting Hired As A Felon Game Designer

Game design jobs for felons could be a good career choice for you. This article will talk about jobs for convicted felons in game design and describe what you will need to do to get a job in this industry. Skills seem to be what sets those apart who get hired for game design felon jobs, not your background.

What is game testing and design? Almost all of us have played computer or video games so it’s not too difficult to explain it. Simply put, game programming and design is the creation and development of gaming software.

So are there about jobs for convicted felons in Game Design? Yes, of course!

The gaming industry is one of today’s fastest-growing industries in the U.S. From 2005-2008, the U.S. economy as a whole grew by 1.4 percent while the gaming industry grew by an amazing 16.7 percent during the same period, according to the Entertainment Software Association. In fact, gaming is expected to become a $58 billion business by 2012.

Around 120,000 people are employed by the gaming industry which means that there are plenty of game testing jobs for convicted felons. This industry is one where people are more concerned about what you can do now than what you have been doing in the past.

Video design professionals are paid very well. The average annual compensation per gaming industry employee was $89,781 in 2009 and this figure is not expected to decrease any time soon.

Video design jobs for felons are suitable for those who are very creative and imaginative. You should be detail-oriented and disciplined. A passion for gaming is also a good quality for a game tester.

The first thing you will need to start a career in game testing is a high school diploma. Then you will need to learn about digital game design by getting a certificate or degree in video design. Core courses in a gaming program include animation, gaming technology, video design process and level design.

Once you graduate, you can get an entry-level job in a game design or entertainment company. These video design jobs for felons will involve tasks such as working with a team to design, develop, test and produce games, or create animations and 3D scenes.

Developing games or multi-media entertainment requires different types of game design professionals such as testers, programmers, concept artists, animators, sound technicians, modelers, music composers, level designers, story writers, producers, directors, etc.

The first few months in a video design company is mostly spent learning the ropes. Typically, the first job of a video design graduate will be an internship or a job as a tester. Game testers play a specific part of the game over and over to try to spot and document any flaws or bugs in the game programs or graphics.

In conclusion, game design is a good career choice for ex-felons who are interested in video games and are creative, artistic and imaginative. To get a job in the gaming industry, you can study game design and then apply for a job in one of the top a game design or entertainment companies. There are many game design jobs for felons available because the industry is experiencing very rapid growth.

Source by Michael J. Martin

How to Play Video Games Responsibly

First off, I will admit that I was once a video game addict. It first starts when you buy your first console. A person, especially children, will play their game systems for hours on end when they first acquire a gaming system. At first, this seems like no big deal, but this ‘game binging’ develops into something far worse.

As new gamers progress, they begin to make time for video games. An example of this would be setting a time to finish homework so that a game could be played. Tip number one is: NEVER make time to play a video game. Let down time be time to play video games. If you let the game create its own time in your life, you are in essence allowing it to take over.

MMORPGs are perhaps the most addictive of video games. You can spend hours playing WoW or Runescape, but never actually get to the level or place you wanted to. This leads to overplaying and in turn addictive behavior. Tip number two is: Set reasonable in-game goals in order to maintain a positive experience and also keep your time under control.

When you have everything under control with gaming, it will not feel like a job, but rather a pastime or hobby. You will feel no huge desire to play because it is no big deal to you.

When all is said and done, if you still have a feverish addiction to gaming, my solution is: just become a video game tester or get a job within the industry. Game testers are not considered addicts because they work within the industry. You don’t even have to be a pro or master to become one. They get paid well as you progress through the gaming industry and gain experience. Why not try it out if you have an uncanny penchant for gaming. Work at Gamestop if you have a passion for gaming because others will be glad to listen to you for advice.

Video game addiction is becoming serious business as the numbers of gamers keeps growing worldwide. Do not lose your sense of reality and remember my two main tips to keeping it under control: never make time to play a game and set reasonable in-game goals. Play on gamers!

Source by Ziggy Marks

Historical Games & War Games – Can You Change History?

What if you were in charge of the American Army during World War II? What if you were rebuilding a small city in the town of Carcassonne, France? How would you build it?

Historical gaming has always fascinated gamers because of the concept of recreating a moment in time and changing history. We all know we can not actually change history, but we can recreate exactly what the opposition faced. We can see what hardships and strategies they used? We can also learn what they could have done differently.

There are some great games out there that teach a little history while you play. There are some things you learn as you play these games that you would have never know unless you played them. One of my personal favorites is Memoir '44. This game comes with nine different scenarios, so the game can change each time you play. It's still a game, so there is a lot of fun and strategy, but it makes me appreciate the odds the opposing team faced as I play the corresponding scenario. Most times I have played, I carry the scenario with me in my head thinking about the "What if's". I can honestly say I have never walked away from Monopoly and said "Wow!" Afterwards.

Win or lose I always have fun playing historical war games. Try and find something that you like. Here is a list of war games I recommend you try.

  • Memoir '44 – Staged in World War II for 2 players. The game lasts about an hour. It does take time to set up the scenario, though.
  • Tides of Iron – Also a World War II game, but a little more depth. The tiles can be changed to play different games.
  • Axis and Allies Miniatures-Battle at Sea – You select your battleships and roll the dice. Although there are not any scenario-based games here, you learn about the strength of the ships, the advantages of having heavy armor vs. Speed. Or see how even a wounded opponent can get a good shot in.
  • Risk – There are many different varieties available, but the concept is the same: Where do you place your armies to prevent being overrun.

If you are not into the idea of ​​a large war game, but like the idea of ​​historically-oriented board games, here are more ideas on the lighter side …

  • Carcassonne – This game is more fun than historical, but the town forms as players try to capture Castles, Farms, and Roads. It is a very good and light introduction to Historical gaming. You might even decide to use Google and find out a little about Carcassonne, the famous town.
  • Settlers of Catan – The core game does not have scenarios, but understand how the resources of wood, iron, bricks and food, affect settling the countryside. Another fun element is that you can trade resources with other players, which is what I imagine settlers actually had to do.
  • Ticket to Ride – Build railroad lines from one US city to another. The further the distance, the more points you get. Other railroaders may even try and block you. This is a great game for geography. It also introduces very light strategy, which all ages can play. There are many varieties of this game, (Europe, Switzerland, Germany, and a US Card Game) to learn about other countries as well.
  • Puerto Rico – You encourage the growth of the island based on your role, which changes every turn. You need to incorporate the development of goods, build manufacturing plants to turn those goods into products, and then you actually have to sell those goods for a profit. And you can not do this without workers, so you need to get them also. Oh, and your opponents are trying to outsmart you while they develop their own version of the same island. The most productive Governor wins.

Source by Charles Cabell

Use The Xbox to Learn Piano Or Keyboard As Well As Your Games Console And Get The Most Out Of It

Although the Xbox has been mainly used for gaming, because of its connectivity to the internet it can be used for so much more these days including learning to play piano or keyboard.

Most people have their game consoles set up in their spare room or study room, and this is the room where people chill out after a long day at the office, so it's a perfect area to set up a piano or keyboard.

The Xbox is a fantastic gaming console, and is very popular with both the youngger generation and adults.

There are so many features to the Xbox, including, being able to connect it to your iPod, to play music, play audio devices streamed from your PC for example movies, music videos and mp3 files.

You can also play games through the internet for free.

There are many more educational products available now too, so why not use it to learn how to play piano or keyboard yourself?

With modern technology being developed all the time, and new features coming out it is becoming increasingly popular to be able to learn via consoles as well as being able to have lots of fun whilst doing it!

With all consoles being connected to the internet and the fact that most things you can do over the web these days, even learning how to play the piano and keyboard is possible, and works brilliantly, as you are able to access your tutorials through the game Console via the internet.

Although the Xbox is known for being most popular for playing games, which both children and adults love to do, it is also a good way of promoting learning over the internet and in the near future technology will be so far developed even part of schooling will Be done in this way I would imagine.

A study recently contacted was on how to try to channel children's energy into learning, and to develop their skills but using something they are familiar with and love to do as a hobby.

It was also discussed with children and adults with learning difficulties that can not necessarily sit still or learn in a normal school or college environment, but they can learn visibly and practically.

So by channeling this into game consoles it is a fantastic way of encouraging children and adults to take a break from playing games and get them to learn piano or keyboard, especially as it's on a piece of equipment that they like to use.

Online piano and keyboard tutorials are now becoming more and more developed and music is known to channel energy into something positive, so it's becoming increasingly popular for parents to encourage their children to take up a musical instrument such as the piano or keyboard and to learn whilst Getting great enjoyment out of it.

It still be seen as playing on their game console, but at the same time they are learning something that will be rewarding for the rest of their life.

Source by Samantha Griffiths

Where to Buy Video Games in Hong Kong

When travellers visit Hong Kong, most start thinking about what they want to buy before they even reach the city. Shopping is everywhere in Hong Kong, and quite often the price of what you’re looking for is cheaper here than in your home country.

One of the most common questions I see on the internet about Hong Kong shopping is “Where can I buy video games in Hong Kong?” That’s a very good question, and I’ll explain why.

If you’ve ever been to Hong Kong you know there’s no stores like Wal Mart or Gamestop that have large displays of video games for sale. And if you visit a big mall, like Cityplaza, Pacific Place, or Times Square, you probably won’t find a store selling video games in there either. You might get lucky and find games in somewhere like Toys R Us, but they’ll be for sale at full price.

After searching around for a while, visitors might wonder how a city famous for cheap electronics has very few places to buy video games. Even street markets don’t sell video games.

If you’re looking to buy video games, consoles, peripherals, or electronic devices in Hong Kong, you want to visit the Wan Chai District in Hong Kong Island. Here you’ll find a mall called the Oriental 188 Shopping Centre.

The Oriental 188 Shopping Centre is a shopping mall dedicated to video games, movies, anime, toys, electronic devices, and all sort of other goodies.

The mall itself is quite small when you compare it to other malls in Hong Kong. The hallways are narrow and shops are crammed into the limited space inside. The shops consist of mostly independent shop owners who sell any of the items listed above. The prices inside these shops are cheaper than what you would find at chain electronics stores like Broadway and Fortress. And prices for games are cheaper here than what you’d find them for in stores in Hong Kong that sell video games.

There are a few things you need to know when buying video games in Hong Kong. And since most shop owners at the Oriental 188 Shopping Centre don’t speak English, you’ll need to know these things before you go.

1. Some video games consoles have region locks on them. Meaning you can’t play games from Asia on a North American or European video game console. These consoles include: Nintendo Wii, Nintendo 3DS, and XBOX 360.

2. Game consoles without region locks on them include: PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita, PlayStation Portable, Nintendo DS. You can play any game for these consoles no matter where it was made or where your console is from.

3. Getting to the Oriental 188 Shopping Centre can be a bit difficult since the MTR doesn’t stop anywhere near this mall. The best way to get here is by bus. Look for a bus that stops at 298 Hennessey Road (at Kwong Sang Hong Building) or Wan Chai Road and Heard Street.

4. A computer shopping mall, called 298 Computer Zone, is found in the same building as Oriental 188 Shopping Centre. If you’re looking for Computer products, give 298 Computer Zone a look. You won’t have to walk very far at all.

5. This mall is packed with young people on the weekends. Go to 188 on a weekday to avoid large crowds of people.

This is just some of my information on the Oriental 188 Shopping Centre. Click Here for more information on this mall and other shopping centres in Hong Kong.

Source by Jonathan Michael Nicholas

Technology Acceptance Model

Advances in computing and information technology are changing the way people meet and communicate. People can meet, talk, and work together outside traditional meeting and office spaces. For instance, with the introduction of software designed to help people schedule meetings and facilitate decision or learning processes, is weakening geographic constants and changing interpersonal communication dynamics. Information technology is also dramatically affecting the way people teach and learn.

As new information technologies infiltrate workplaces, home, and classrooms, research on user acceptance of new technologies has started to receive much attention from professionals as well as academic researchers. Developers and software industries are beginning to realize that lack of user acceptance of technology can lead to loss of money and resources.
In studying user acceptance and use of technology, the TAM is one of the most cited models. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was developed by Davis to explain computer-usage behavior. The theoretic basis of the model was Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).

The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is an information systems (System cohesing of the network of all communication channels used within an organization) theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology, the model suggests that when users are presented with a new Software package, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it, notably:

Perceived usefulness (PU) – This was defined by Fred Davis as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance".

Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) Davis defined this as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort" (Davis, 1989).

The goal of TAM is "to provide an explanation of the determinants of computer acceptance that is general, capable of explaining user behavior across a broad range of end-user computing technologies and user populations, while at the same time being both parsimonious and theoretically justified "He said.

According to the TAM, if a user perceives a specific technology as useful, she / he will believe in a positive use-performance relationship. Since effort is a finite resource, a user is likely to accept an application when she / he perceives it as easier to use than another .As a consequence, educational technology with a high level of PU and PEOU is more likely to inductive positive perceptions. The relationship between PU and PEOU is that PU mediates the effect of PEOU on attitude and intended use. In other words, while PU has direct impacts on attitude and use, PEOU influences attitude and use indirectly through PU.

User acceptance is defined as "the demonstrable willingness within a user group to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to support" (Dillon & Morris). Although this definition focuses on planned and intended uses of technology, studies report that individual perceptions of information technologies are likely to be affected by the objective characteristics of technology, as well as interaction with other users. For example, the amount to which one evaluates new technology as useful, she / he is likely to use it. At the same time, her / his perception of the system is influenced by the way people around her / him evaluate and use the system.
Studies on information technology continuously report that user attributes are important factors affecting the success of the system. For the past several decades, many definitions of attitude have been proposed. However, all theories consider attitude to a relationship between a person and an object (Woelfel, 1995).

In the context of information technologies, is an approach to the study of attitude – the technology acceptance model (TAM). TAM suggests users formulate a positive attitude toward the technology when they perceive the technology to be useful and easy to use (Davis, 1989).

A review of scholarly research on IS acceptance and use suggests that TAM has emerged as one of the most influential models in this stream of research The TAM represents an important theoretical contribution towards understanding IS usage and IS acceptance behaviors. However, this model – with its original emphasis on the design of system characteristics – does not account for social influence in the adoption and utilization of new information systems.

Source by Nida Mazhar